Securing Files & Directories using ACLs in Linux

Our top priority is to secure and protect data from unauthorized access. We are all aware of the permissions we set using some handy Linux commands like chmod, chown & chgrp. However, these default permissions sets have some limitations and at times do not work to meet our requirements. For example, we cannot set different permissions sets for different users on the same directory or file. This is where Access Control Lists (ACLs) come into place.
Linux Access Control Lists
Let’s say, you have two users, ‘user1‘, and ‘user2‘. Each having a common group say ‘qhgroup’. User ‘user1‘ want that only ‘user2‘ user can read and access files owned by ‘user1‘ and no one else should have any access to that.
ACLs (Access Control Lists) enable us to do the above trick. These ACLs allow us to grant permissions to a user, group, and any set of users that are not in a user’s group list.

How to Check ACL Support in Linux Systems

Before proceeding, you must have support for ACLs on the current Kernel and mounted file systems.
Run the following command to check ACL Support for file system and POSIX_ACL=Y option (if there is N instead of Y, then it means Kernel doesn’t support ACL and needs to be recompiled).
[root@quantumhost ~]# grep -i acl /boot/config*


Install Required Packages

Before starting playing with ACLs make sure that you have the required packages installed. Assuming you are on a Debian based system
[root@quantumhost ~]# apt-get install nfs4-acl-tools acl


Check Mounted File System for ACLs Support

Now, check the mounted file system that whether it is mounted with the ACL option or not. We can use ‘mount‘ command for checking the same as shown below.

[root@quantumhost ~]# mount | grep -i /dev/sda1

/dev/sda1 on / type ext4 (rw,relatime,errors=remount-ro)

But in our case ACL is not shown by default. So, following we have the option to remount the mounted partition using the ACL option. But, before we continue, we have one more option to make sure the partition is mounted with the ACL option or not, because for the recent system it can be integrated with the default mount option as this is in our case.
[root@quantumhost ~]# tune2fs -l /dev/sda1 | grep acl
Default mount options: user_xattr acl
In the above output, you can see that the default mount option already has support for ACL.

Before Setting Default ACLs
To determine the default ACLs for a specific file or directory, use the ‘getfacl‘ command. In the example below, the getfacl is used to get the default ACLs for a folder ‘Music‘.
[root@quantumhost ~]# getfacl Music/

# file: Music/
# owner: root
# group: root

Setting Default ACLs
To set the default ACLs for a specific file or directory, use the ‘setfacl‘ command. In the example below, the setfacl command will set a new ACLs (read and execute) on a folder ‘Music’.
[root@quantumhost ~]# setfacl -m d:o:rx Music/

Show permissions after setting the ACLs

[root@quantumhost ~]# getfacl Music/

# file: Music/
# owner: root
# group: root

How to Set New ACLs on a File

Use the ‘setfacl’ command for setting or modifying on any file or directory. For example, to give read and write permissions to user ‘user1‘ on a file.
# setfacl -m u:user1:rw /user1/file

How to Set New ACLs on a Folder

Use the ‘setfacl’ command for setting or modifying any file or directory. For example, to give read, write and execute permissions to user ‘user1‘ on a folder recursively.
# setfacl -Rm u:user1:rwx /user1/folder

How to View ACLs

Use the ‘getfacl‘ command for viewing ACL on any file or directory. For example, to view ACL on ‘/user1/file‘ use below command.
# getfacl /user1/file

# file: /user1/file
# owner: user1
# group: user1

How to Remove ACLs

For removing ACL from any file/directory, we use x and b options as shown below.
Remove only specified ACL from file/directory;
# setfacl -x ACL file/directory

Removing all ACL from file/directory

# setfacl -b file/directory

: After implementing ACL, you will see an extra ‘+‘ sign for ‘ls –l’ output as below.
[root@quantumhost user1]# ls -la

total 4
drwxrwx---+ 2 user1 user1 4096 Apr 17 17:01 file

Transfer files with Rsync

What is Rsync?

Rsync stands for “remote synchronization”. It is a remote and local file synchronization tool that helps you efficiently transfer files.

Rsync is faster than tools like Secure Copy Protocol (SCP) as it uses the delta-transfer algorithm that minimizes the data transfer by copying only the sections of a file that have been changed.

Some of the extra features included with Rsync:

  • Pipelines file transfers to minimize latency costs
  • Supports copying links, devices, owners, groups, and permissions

With that said, you are able to transfer files from local  to  remote, or remote  to  local. Rsync does not support remote  to  remote file transfers.

Rsync in action

Now we know what Rsync is, let’s see how it works.

Rsync works similarly to other remote server management tools like SSH and SCP.

Basic syntax of Rsync.
rsync [options] source destination

Transfer a file from your local system to a remote server. It is also called a “push” operation.
rsync local_filepath user@remote-host:remote_filepath

Transfer a file from a remote server to your local system, also called a “pull” operation.
rsync user@destination-server:destination_filepath source_filepath

Keep in mind that Rsync uses SSH for remote file-transfers by nature. Make sure you have SSH (Secure Shell) enabled on the destination system.

Rsync lets you add additional options. Let’s look at a few useful options.

Transfer recursively

A recursive file transfer can be executed if you add the -r option. This is useful when working with folders. Here is an example:

rsync -r user@remote-host:remote_folder/ local_folder

Archive option

The archive option (-a) preserves special and device files, modification times, permissions from the source folder, and is also used to preserve symbolic links while transferring files.

The archive option also syncs files recursively, so it is used more than the recursive option. Here is how you use it:

rsync -a user@remote-host:remote_folder/ local_folder

Use Compression

You can also compress files using the -z option. Compressing files will reduce the network load and speed up the file transfer.

rsync -az user@remote-host:remote_folder/ local_folder

Show the progress

For large file transfers, it is useful to see or follow the progress of the operation. You can use the -P option to know the progress of the file transfer. As Rsync is a very robust file transfer tool by nature, you can also resume file transfers if they are interrupted.

rsync -aP user@remote-host:remote_folder/ local_folder

Verbose option

The verbose option (-v) can help you understand every step of the file transfer.

rsync -av user@remote-host:remote_folder/ local_folder

To get a list of all the options, use the help command
rsync --help

How to set Rsync speed limit for bandwidth control with –bwlimit option


rsync --bwlimit=KBPS source destination
rsync --bwlimit=KBPS [options] source destination


You set I/O limit in 5000 KBytes per second:

Local transfer

rsync --bwlimit=5000 source_filepath destination_filepath

Local to remote transfer

rsync --bwlimit=5000 source_filepath user@destination-server:destination_filepath

Another option is to use trickle, It is a userspace bandwidth manager.


trickle -u uploadLimit program
trickle -d downloadLimit rsync
trickle -u {UPLOAD_LIMIT} -d {DOWNLOAD_LIMIT} program-binary

For example:

trickle -s -d 5000 -u 5000 rsync source_filepath destination_filepath
trickle -s -d 5000 -u 5000 rsync -avr source_filepath user@destination-server:destination_filepath


Rsync simplifies the whole file transfer process by offering a robust, versatile, and flexible tool compared to alternatives like SCP.

Rsync is great for maintenance operations, backups, and general file operations between local and remote machines.